Sleep Disorders and Glucose Tolerance in Pregnancy
Four validated sleep questionnaires were administered to 169 pregnant women at the time of 50-g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) during the second trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 108 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT).
Almost 41% of the participants had excessive daytime sleepiness ; 64% had poor sleep quality; 25% snored frequently; 29% had increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB); 52% experienced short sleep (SS); 19% had both increased SDB risk and Short sleep; and 14% had daytime dysfunction.
Reported sleep duration inversely correlated with glucose levels. Each hour of reduced sleep time was associated with a 4% increase in glucose levels. Increased likelihood of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was found in subjects with increased SDB risk , and frequent snoring .
Pregnant women experience significant sleep disturbances that are associated with increased risk of GDM and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant women with increased SDB risk, frequent snoring, and sleep duration of less than 7 hours a night have increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is present in 24% of men and 9% of women in the U.S. population and has been linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes . Recent studies reveal that SDB is present in up to 86% of patients with type 2 diabetes . SDB severity has been associated with poorer glucose control.
Decreases in both duration and quality of sleep are common in pregnant women as a result of hormonal and physical factors . Collectively, these disorders have been termed pregnancy-associated sleep disorders by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders .
Prospective studies show that SDB symptoms increase during pregnancy . SDB in pregnancy has been associated with preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm delivery . A few recent studies using questionnaires that variably assess snoring, SDB symptoms, and/or sleep duration report an association between short sleep (SS) and/or frequent snoring and glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) .
Tagged with: Daytime Sleepiness • diabetes • gestational diabetes mellitus • glucose tolerance • Insulin Resistance • Pregnancy • pregnancy-associated sleep disorders • pregnant women • Short Sleep • Sleep • sleep disorder • Sleep Disordered Breathing • sleep disturances • Sleep Duration • Snoring • Type 2 diabetes
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