Metabolic Syndrome Archives

Obstructive Sleep Apnea:New Research Explorations

OSA1An important new finding has come from an observational study linking obstructive sleep apnea with cancer mortality. Based on 22 years of follow-up data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort, investigators reported that mortality was higher for people with mild obstructive sleep apnea , moderate obstructive sleep apnea , and severe obstructive sleep apnea .

Cancer mortality in this context refers to all types of cancer, with lung cancer the most frequent. The researchers cited preclinical studies showing that chronic or intermittent hypoxia—the latter mimicking clinical obstructive sleep apnea—can lead to tumor growth and resistance to radiotherapy. This new research provides a possible mechanistic link between obesity and cancer, and will help to increase awareness of obstructive sleep apnea by broadening its potential detrimental outcomes beyond the cardiovascular system. Whether the purported effects of obstructive sleep apnea on cancer mortality will be reported in other cohorts or can be mitigated by intervention is unclear. Read the rest of this entry

central sleep apneaAlong with obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea is one of the two main forms of sleep apnea, a dangerous class of sleep disorders characterized by an interruption of breathing of 10 seconds or more numerous times an hour during sleep.

Dangers of Central Sleep Apnea 

Although central sleep apnea is less common than obstructive sleep apnea, it is just as dangerous.

Central sleep apnea can result in severe morning headaches, daytime fatigue, anxiety, depression, short-term memory problems and difficulty focusing.  Read the rest of this entry

Sleep Problems Adversely Affect Body Immunity

Sleep is extremely important for the body. It plays an important role on the body weight and metabolism, mood, cardiovascular health, and disease .

The frightening side effects of sleep deprivation are only compounded by the fact that millions of the Americans are sleep deprived. According to the National Sleep Foundation (NSF), 40 million Americans suffer from some type of sleeping disorder, with 60% of adults saying that they do have sleep problems a few nights a week, if not more.

A recently concluded research study findings published in the journal Immunity  will sure have people taking their sleep a whole lot more seriously than they have before. Read the rest of this entry

For patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea, three months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is associated with reduced blood pressure, and partial reversal of metabolic abnormalities, according to a study published in the Dec. 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Surendra K. Sharma, M.D., Ph.D., from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi, and colleagues investigated the effects of CPAP treatment on metabolic syndrome in 86 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Patients were assigned to real or sham CPAP for three months, followed by a washout period of one month, and then a crossover to the other intervention for three months. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose levels and lipid profile, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin levels, carotid intima-media thickness, and visceral fat were measured before and after each intervention. Read the rest of this entry

A new study shows that people with primary insomnia may be able to  find relief by wearing a cap that cools the brain during sleep. The  findings were presented last week at SLEEP 2011, the 25th Anniversary Meeting of the  Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC, in Minneapolis.

According to the researchers, a reduction in metabolism in the  brain’s frontal cortex occurs while falling asleep and is associated  with restorative sleep. Insomnia, however, is associated with increased  metabolism in this same brain region. One way to reduce cerebral  metabolic activity is to use frontal cerebral thermal transfer to cool  the brain—a process known as “cerebral hypothermia.” Read the rest of this entry

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) rapidly mitigates OSA in obese subjects but its metabolic effects are not well-characterized.

The researchers postulated that CPAP will decrease IR, ghrelin and resistin and increase adiponectin levels in this setting.

In a pre- and post-treatment, within-subject design, insulin and appetite-regulating hormones were assayed in 23 20 obese subjects with OSA before and after 6 months of CPAP use. Primary outcome measures included glucose, insulin, and IR levels.

Other measures included ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels. Body weight change were recorded and used to examine the lationship between glucose regulation and appetite-regulating hormones. Read the rest of this entry

Older adults need about 7-9 hours of uninterrupted sleep, but for many reasons they may often be sleep deprived.  Sleep deprivation may be caused by day time napping, anxiety, sleep apnea, or movement disorders such as restless leg syndrome, medications, or dementia.

Risks of sleep deprivation include: a decreased ability to fight infection, heart disease (48% greater chance of developing or dying from heart disease), high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, an increase incidence of accidents, impairment of attention, judgment, and problem solving.  Lack of sleep contributes to depression, aging of the skin, anxiety, and weight gain. Sleep maybe the fountain of youth but unlike that elusive natural wonder, sleep can be found and embraced.

There are many ways to get better nights sleep.  Most important is to minimize sleep during the day. A short daytime nap may be beneficial but multiple naps or extended daytime sleeping affects the quality and quantity of the primary sleep period.  Developing habits around bedtime, the waking hour, regular exercise, and a relaxing bedtime routine, help to maximize sleep.  Caffeine, alcohol, nicotine and  large quantities of liquids and food should also be avoided close

Safe sleep is just as important and good sleep.  When getting up in the middle of the night from a sound sleep, disorientation, low blood pressure or generalized weakness may develop. Stay safe at night by keeping a phone with emergency phone numbers close to the bed, having a nightlight in the bathroom, removing area rugs and getting up slowly to make sure strength and balance are present before walking.  Falls are the leading cause of injury related visits to the emergency room, most of them happening at night.

Scientists say sleep deprivation also slows your metabolism down as well. Researchers from Uppsala University in Sweden found that insomnia could encourage you to pile on the pounds by slowing down the rate at which the body burns calories.

Study leader Christian Benedict, said: ‘Our findings show that one night of sleep deprivation acutely reduces energy expenditure in healthy men, which suggests sleep contributes to the acute regulation of daytime energy expenditure in huma

Older studies have linked sleep deprivation with weight gain and also shown how disrupted sleep also disrupts levels of stress – and hunger-related hormones during waking hours. Read the rest of this entry

Obese, asthmatic, anxious or depressed children are more likely to experience excessive daytime sleepiness, or EDS, according to Penn State College of Medicine sleep researchers.

“Although excessive daytime sleepiness in children is commonly assumed by physicians and the public to be the result of sleep-disordered breathing or inadequate sleep, our data suggest that EDS in young children is more strongly associated with obesity and mood issues as it is in adults,” said Edward Bixler, professor of psychiatry and vice chair of research at the Sleep Research and Treatment Center.

Excessive daytime sleepiness is the inability to stay awake during the day, while sleep-disordered breathing is a group of disorders that includes sleep apnea, characterized by pauses in breathing. Read the rest of this entry

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a major but not universally present feature of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The latter has been associated with glucose dysmetabolism and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the role of EDS by investigating potential differences between somnolent and non-somnolent OSAS patients in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and levels of cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods Included were 25 newly diagnosed otherwise healthy OSAS patients, reporting EDS and 25 age- and BMI-matched, non-somnolent OSAS patients, who served as controls. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, as well as homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index, levels of hs-CRP, and lipidemic profile were measured. Read the rest of this entry

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